From Personal Experience The Volunteer State

Northwest Tennessee Needs Help

Tennessee county map.

We all know Cristoforo Colombo, the brave yet kind-hearted soul who pioneered sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. Although he did some not-nice things during his explorations, I’m bringing him up because he went to somewhere that had no infrastructure and was entirely foreign to him.

I feel that Northwest Tennessee is as foreign other harm reductionists across the United States as the “Indies” was to Columbus and his men.

Many other places in the States are rife with well-established harm reduction advocacy, syringe exchange, and related activity or program infrastructure.

Northwest Tennessee isn’t. Our crop of harm reductionists are bare as a baby’s ass.

It seems short-sighted to claim that there are no other practicing harm reductionists here in NWTN. However, I’ve been doing this stuff for two-and-a-half or three years now and have only met one person worth their salt — I don’t want to name him or her here, but they’re great.


Why don’t harm reductionists from other parts of the United States in which drug users are treated much, much better than they are here in NWTN come here and lay down infrastructure for us flatland hillbillies to follow?

Maybe I’m being selfish and making everything about me, me, me.

But I don’t think so.

It sucks to know that I could face arrest and/or prosecution for harm reduction advocacy here in Tennessee. I also don’t like knowing that I have to bankroll (the very few harm reduction-related) expenses tied to my advocacy.

I’d love it if an experienced member of this national community of harm reductionists came here and showed us how to be ‘bout it ’bout it.

From now until then, I’ll be spitting in one hand and shitting in the other.

As of February 2021, Northwest Tennessee still has no syringe services programs and no safe syringe disposal sites (not counting pharmacies, which charge for their services and often promote anti-drug-user stigma).

On the bright side, the state added more than a dozen recovery-oriented contractors across the state under its brand-new Lifeline Peer Project — each one is assigned regions, for which they’re called “Region X Lifeline Peer Project Regional Coordinator.” For more on the Lifeline Peer Project, read here.

Harm Reduction The Volunteer State

Accessing Naloxone in Martin, Tennessee

Martin, Tennessee, is in Weakley County, which borders Western Kentucky. Martin was home to roughly 10,543 people in 2017, says the United States Census Bureau, whereas Weakley County is likely currently home to some 33,400 residents.

Fortunately, the Volunteer State allows syringe services programs (SSP) as long as they’re first sanctioned by the state to act as such. On the other hand, there’s no fully-fledged SSP — they’re generally referred to as syringe exchanges, though the Tennessean government identifies them as SSPs — in West Tennessee.

Memphis, the second-largest city in the state, is home to an active syringe services program, though it’s in the far southwestern extreme of the state, meaning people in Northwest Tennessee aren’t reasonably able to visit. Other Tennessee cities that are home to SSPs include Nashville, Knoxville, and Chattanooga.

Even if Memphis were home to an SSP, it’s too far away from NWTN to help my fellow drug users in the further-north portion of Northwest Tennessee. From Martin, for example, it’s about two-and-a-half hours.

While we don’t have any syringe exchanges here in West Tennessee, we do have Regional Overdose Prevention Specialists who are put to work giving out naloxone throughout the state, as well as educating people about using it safely, in a legally-sanctioned manner.

Want Free Naloxone in Martin?

Melesa Lassiter of the Weakley County Prevention Coalition is a registered nurse who works as one of the state’s 20 active Regional Overdose Prevention Specialists. She serves the nine-county region the makes up Northwest Tennessee, classified by the state as Region 6N.

Regional Overdose Prevention Specialists such as Melesa Lassiter primarily work with first responders, people at risk for opioid overdoses, laypeople who might find themselves around people who are at high risk of opioid OD, and “organizations that provide treatment and recovery services or community resources,” according to the official website of the state’s Department of Mental Health & Substance Abuse Services.

You can access Melesa Lassiter’s free services by reaching out to her by email or phone.

Her email is

Her phone number is (731) 819-7603.

You can also visit Martin Housing Authority here in Martin at 134 East Heights Drive to receive naloxone.

What’s Narcan?

Narcan (naloxone) is a name-brand version of naloxone, a drug primarily used to reverse cases of opioid overdose. It is legal to possess in the state of Tennessee.

Its use carries absolutely zero contraindications, or negative side effects, outside of its use in people who regularly use opioids — both pharmaceutical and illegal forms — and are physically dependent on them.

The only contraindication is that using it will cause immediate opioid withdrawal symptoms known as precipitated opioid withdrawal. Precipitated withdrawal symptoms are worse than those from normal opioid withdrawal. Experiencing precipitated opioid withdrawal is a far, far, far more desirable outcome than facing opioid overdose, a now-common form of death that has ravaged the American population over the last few years.

As long as Narcan is given to someone experiencing an opioid overdose within a few minutes, they’ll be brought back to life.

Better Understanding Narcan

All pharmaceutical drugs have name-brand versions. At least they did at a given point in time.

There are multiple name-brand versions of naloxone, though the most widely-recognized one is Narcan. In fact, in my experience working with drug users on a peer-to-peer level throughout Northwest Tennessee (NWTN), I’ve found that “Narcan” is a more commonly-recognized term than “naloxone,” though both are still largely unrecognized by contemporary NWTN-based drug users.

Narcan is a nasal spray that can be purchased in pharmacies and sourced at no cost from government agencies, non-profit organizations, and grassroots harm reduction supporters across the United States.

Naloxone refers to Narcan’s active ingredient itself, as well as generic formulations of naloxone. Outside of nasal spray, naloxone is also common in a generic injectable form that comes in one-milliliter vials.

In the past few months, I visited a local chain pharmacy in Martin and requested a price check on their two-packs of Narcan — the price was $80! This was the cheapest variety they had. I’m not sure if they stocked another name brand of naloxone, Evzio, which costs thousands of dollars per unit — the American average is said to be some $3,854.

Why Bring Back Drug Users to Life?

Since the idea that opioid use is dangerous is widely known, many of us feel that opioids shouldn’t be used in the first place. People who do use them shouldn’t be brought back to life, some of us think.

Although drug users know what they’re getting themselves into, I don’t think anybody wants to see a friend or family member die when they could have been revived. We’ve all lost people to drugs. One reason why is because too many people aren’t aware of naloxone or how to use it; further, most people don’t have steady access to the safe, life-saving drug.

Society benefits in several ways from making naloxone more widely available and making people more aware of its existence and how to use it properly.

Despite these facts, let’s say you still think people shouldn’t use illegal drugs or their legal counterparts (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, coffee).

People can’t use naloxone or Narcan recreationally. It offers absolutely zero recreational effects. You can’t overdose from naloxone, either.

People who are prescribed pharmaceutical opioids by physicians also overdose from opioids. Family members and friends who take their opioid medications on accident, including children, are also liable to experience opioid overdose.

Would it be fair to these chronic pain patients whose lives are ravaged by day-in, day-out pain — as well as their family members and friends — to not have access to naloxone or Narcan and reverse accidental overdoses?

Who Is Narcan For?

Narcan isn’t just for illegal drug users. It’s for people who are prescribed opioids both on a long-term basis and on an acute, short-term basis (i.e., after having wisdom teeth pulled by dentists, after experiencing surgical procedures such as for spine or knee problems). It’s also for laypeople, including family members and friends of known opioid users.

People who aren’t even aware of anybody who takes opioids in any capacity should still keep Narcan around and know how to use it properly. First responders should always have it. All law enforcement officers should possess the drug while they’re on duty. Physicians, pharmacists, and government agencies should make it easier and less worrisome to possess and obtain Narcan.

Do You Oppose the Use of Naloxone and What This Article Talks About?

We should all know about Narcan, at the very least — even if you’re against drug use and against the idea of Narcan in our society, despite the countless benefits associated with its promotion and the few, if any, negatives tied to Narcan. 

Personally, I recognize how otherworldly the views that I express on this website might sound to others. As such, I genuinely believe that my views, as well as the opinions expressed in this article, are not objectively true.

In other words, that means I don’t believe it’s my way or the highway.

Tying Everything Together

However, I do believe that you should thoroughly give my way of thinking a shot before writing it off. Please try to learn about Narcan and its merits before disagreeing with its use.

If you still don’t support Narcan or naloxone and are passionate about this topic, I encourage you to share your opinions with others. We need more informed people who care about things in our society.

Criminal Justice Drug User Advocacy From Personal Experience The Volunteer State

A Law Every Tennessean Should Know About — T.C.A. § 40-7-124

I’m not an attorney. I’ve never practiced law.

As a long-term drug user, unfortunately, I’ve had a few run-ins with law enforcement and the criminal justice system. Many drug users, especially those who suffer from substance use disorder and have for a long time, share these same legal struggles.

In my nine-plus years of regular drug use, one thing I’ve learned is that the average drug user spreads far more misinformation about drugs than they do truthful, accurate information about drugs. Also, laypeople — whether they use drugs or not — don’t know much about the law, generally speaking.

In this article, I want to shed light on a relatively new law codified within the state of Tennessee — the state’s laws are codified within Tennessee Code Annotated, for the record — called T.C.A. § 40-7-124.

Why Should You Know About It?

T.C.A. § 40-7-124 — that’s pronounced as Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 40, Chapter 7, Section 124 — protects drug users from getting popped with Possession of Drug Paraphernalia, a Class A misdemeanor (as much as 1 year in jail, $2,500) as long as they’re honest with law enforcement officers about what they have in their possession.

To best understand T.C.A. § 40-7-124, please read the entirety of this article. It also wouldn’t hurt to google “T.C.A. § 40-7-124” and read what you can about the law elsewhere, too.

You can pronounce this law as Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 40, Chapter 7, Section 124. I struggled with trying to say it out loud after learning about it, but there weren’t any readily-available resources that were easy to understand. Still, to be honest, I am not 100% sure if this pronunciation is correct. If I’m wrong, tell me and I’ll change it — at least we’ll finally have some closure.

What Is T.C.A. § 40-7-124?

This law protects people who are caught with syringes or other sharp objects that have been used as drug paraphernalia from getting charged with being in possession of drug paraphernalia for those objects, though you must inform law enforcement that you’re in possession of such objects before you get searched.

For example, let’s say you’re in possession of a razor blade used to chop up cocaine, heroin, pills, or meth, or a syringe used to inject such illicit drugs. Before you get searched, you inform the law enforcement officer who pulled you over or otherwise apprehended you of your possession of such items. You are not legally allowed to be charged with or prosecuted for being in possession of drug paraphernalia, codified in Tennessee Code Annotated as T.C.A. § 39-17-425, since you informed that officer of the presence of that razor blade or syringe.

Keep in mind that you very much can get charged with being in possession of drug paraphernalia for other drug paraphernalia not covered by T.C.A. § 40-7-124, such as a plate used to chop illicit drugs upon, a straw used to snort illicit drugs, and so on. Also, if you’re in possession of actual drugs and you get caught with them in this situation, you’ll likely be charged with being in possession of such drugs — T.C.A. § 40-7-124 doesn’t protect you against everything that’s drug-related.

What’s the Purpose of T.C.A. § 40-7-124?

Politicians and other governmental figures want to protect law enforcement officers from being exposed to used syringes or other harmful objects. Syringes are sharp and, obviously, can cause physical harm, even if they’re 100% sterile. However, people don’t carry syringes for no reason — in most cases, that is — and usually intend to use syringes for the administration of illicit drugs, hormones, insulin, etc.

This Tennessee drug law came about in 2015 with the intention of protecting law enforcement officers — the uniformed public servants who do work tough, dangerous jobs — working jurisdictions within the state of Tennessee from being exposed to objects that are very much capable of spreading blood-borne diseases such as HIV or Hepatitis C.

What Happens if You Get Arrested Despite the Protections Afforded by § T.C.A. 40-7-124?

Ultimately, if you want to reduce the risk of getting arrested, you should never travel with drugs or drug paraphernalia. However, this simply isn’t feasible! We drug users have to source drugs and drug paraphernalia somehow.

Most often, we have to drive to where the drugs are or otherwise transport ourselves to them to source them.

Anyways — what happens if you get arrested despite playing by the rules of § T.C.A. 40-7-124?

Let’s assume you only get arrested for being in violation of T.C.A. § 39-17-425. In laymen’s terms, this simply means you got arrested for the misdemeanor possession of drug paraphernalia.

In most jurisdictions, as we frequent fliers of the criminal justice system here in Tennessee know, you’ll likely be given anywhere from six months’ to a year’s probation, along with court fees. You can choose to plead guilty to possession of drug paraphernalia so you can quickly get back to living in the real world. Many of us are forced to plead guilty in such situations to return to our jobs, parenting, and other real-world obligations that we all have to take care of.

If You Can Afford to Bail Out

Bail out as soon as possible. Hire an attorney who is aware of T.C.A. § 40-7-124. If they’re not already aware of this law, hire another one.

With the help of an attorney, you should be okay.

Please keep in mind that I am not an attorney or otherwise legally approved by the state of Tennessee to provide legal advice. Do not take any information listed in this article or on this website as legal advice. The only people who can provide reputable, reliable legal advice are people sanctioned by the state of Tennessee to practice law.

If You Can’t Afford to Bail Out

If you’re willing to sit in jail for anywhere from a week to a month, by all means, do it! With a competent public defender’s help, given that you did comply with T.C.A. § 40-7-124, you shouldn’t be prosecuted for being in possession of drug paraphernalia. After all, T.C.A. § 40-7-124 does prevent people in such situations from being charged with or prosecuted for being in possession of drug paraphernalia.

However, most of us in Tennessee aren’t willing to do this.

Most of us are also too poor to afford legal representation. There are, however, ways for impoverished Tennesseeans to seek out free legal assistance.

Most drug users in Northwest Tennessee (NWTN) are simply too poor to bail out of jail and pay for an attorney. NWTN is simply a greatly-impoverished area. Considering that drug users, as a socioeconomic class, don’t have the same access to financial and other resources, especially here in NWTN, you’ll likely fit under this category — not being able to afford posting cash bail.

That’s Right — Unfortunately, As It Stands, We’re Shit Outta Luck

Again, I’m not an attorney, and I certainly hope I’m not acting like one.

As it stands, even though T.C.A. § 40-7-124 should protect active drug users from being in possession of sharp objects used as drug paraphernalia from getting charged with or prosecuted for being in possession of drug paraphernalia, T.C.A. § 39-17-425, it’s not helping us.

The only thing we can do — by “we,” I mean everybody interested in harm reduction or drug policy, active drug users, recovering drug users, family members and friends of drug users, etc. — is strive to educate laypeople, law enforcement officers, local and state-level politicians, active drug users, and everybody else here on planet Earth about T.C.A. § 40-7-124.

What Can We Do?

Also, anybody and everybody who plans on talking about this stuff to others, whether that be on a public forum like Facebook or Twitter or in real-life conversations with family members, friends, community members, coworkers, peers, or others, make sure to do so in a friendly, calm, welcoming, well-thought-out manner!

Keep in mind that, as far as law enforcement agents are concerned, they regularly hear backtalk and criticism from individuals and society at large. Also, they are the only people who actually enforce laws for a living. They’ve been trained to do this, likely are required to be trained or educated on an ongoing basis, and quite literally put their health and welfare on the line while enforcing laws.

Some, if not many, are generally not willing to listen to people who are not professional law enforcement officers talk about laws and their enforcement in real-world scenarios.

The best way — as far as I know — to get through to pliable, open-minded law enforcement officers would be to first approach friends and family members who are in the field about T.C.A. § 40-7-124 and similar laws.

If you talk to or work with law enforcement regularly, you know exactly how to handle this. For the rest of us who aren’t fortunate enough to be well-versed in educating, informing, or simply being around law enforcement officers, you could benefit from using this harm-reducing brochure — it’s called “Sticks, Pricks & Pokes: a Law That Protects LEO From Needlestick Injury” and is about T.C.A. § 40-7-124 specifically:

Again — and above all else — make sure to be kind, open-minded, well-researched, and nice in sharing information about T.C.A. § 40-7-124 with others. This holds true for talking about other laws, both those in Tennessee and elsewhere, that protect drug users, and otherwise advancing the causes of drug policy reform and the adoption of harm-reduction-related policies and practices.


I am not an attorney. I am not licensed to practice law in the state of Tennessee or elsewhere within the United States. I have never studied law. I have never worked under the supervision of anyone who was, or currently is, sanctioned by any local, state, or federal government to practice law. The advice given herein is not meant to take the place of advice from an attorney, legal consultant, or anyone else who is licensed to practice law in Tennessee or elsewhere.

If you find yourself in a situation outlined above or otherwise related to T.C.A. § 40-7-124, T.C.A. § 39-17-415, or other laws, you should consult an attorney who is licensed to practice law in the state of Tennessee.

From Personal Experience Harm Reduction The Volunteer State

Area-Specific Challenges in Northwest Tennessee

To my knowledge, very few people in Northwest Tennessee (NWTN) are either familiar with harm reduction or supporters of it, let alone active in distributing supplies or educating others.

There are no programs engaged in harm reduction in this region, with the exception of programs that engage in the distribution of naloxone, usually in the form of the name-brand, nasal-spray formulation known as Narcan. That’s all they do, unfortunately.

The More Rural the Area, the More Discretion That’s Exercised

In my experience, this holds true in NWTN. Everyone who has ever lived in a small town knows all too well that community members know about your business before even you are keyed in to what’s going on! At least, it seems to be that way.

Discretion, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, refers to “[the] quality of behaving or speaking in such a way as to avoid causing offense or revealing confidential information.” If I exercise discretion in telling you something, for example, I simply won’t come out and say it.

Due to the fast spread of information in tight-knit, rural communities, illicit drug users are particularly more likely to exercise discretion than the general population. The more risqué their drugs of choice, preferred routes of drug administration, and lifestyle choices are, the less likely NWTN residents are to share socially-frowned-upon information about themselves.

This makes it particularly difficult to reach the people who need help most, such as injection drug users (IDUs) or those who regularly consume illicit street heroin. I say these people need help most because they are statistically shown to be more at-risk than most other portions of the greater drug-using population.

In my experience, and in my opinion, a principal issue related to drug use that currently plagues NWTN is the unwillingness of drug users and all others involved in the world of illicit drugs — as well as their family members, friends, and other associates — to share their habits with others.

Most Drug Users Aren’t Aware of Basic Harm-Reduction-Related Things

Drug users, ostensibly, just like any other group of people, would be in favor of doing or supporting things that improve their quality of life. One of these many possible things is understanding how and when to administer naloxone, whether or not their drug(s) of choice are opioids. Another one might be regularly sharing harm reduction-related information with one another so as to improve their peers’ health.

Unfortunately, in my experience, most NWTN drug users — including opioid-primary or opioid-exclusive users — are not even aware of what naloxone is. Some are familiar with Narcan — it’s naloxone, but most here can’t tell you the differences or similarities between Narcan and naloxone — though few of these people even have access to the opioid overdose reversal agent.

Such as Syringe Availability

The same goes with having clean, legal access to hypodermic syringes. The majority of injection drug users in NWTN source syringes through one of two means:

• A friend, family member, or associate who has diabetes and a prescription for injectable insulin. Typically, these people don’t pay for syringes.
• A friend, drug dealer, or associate who sell syringes via a black-market manner.

There are obvious disadvantages to sourcing syringes through secondary sources, such as not knowing whether they’ve been used or not. Already-used units obviously increase the chance of developing infections, spreading blood-borne diseases, and otherwise causing soft-tissue damage.

In Tennessee, fortunately, it is legal to receive syringes without a prescription. Tennessee residents can readily purchase syringes suitable for injection drug use online from medical or diabetes supply stores either in or out of state. They can also source syringes from organizations such as the Harm Reduction Coalition — for free, too!

Further, there are syringe exchanges here in West Tennessee, for example, but only in Memphis, the only city in the region. There are a few syringe services programs in East Tennessee, too, but only one is in a rural area. That happens to be the only rural-based SSP in all of the Volunteer State.

Law Enforcement Officers Aren’t Well-Versed in Laws That Protect Drug Users

No law enforcement officer wants to handle hypodermic syringes in their line of duty. Unfortunately, in reality, they’re likely to cross paths with used syringes on a reasonably-frequent basis.

In Tennessee, our state book of laws is known as Tennessee Code Annotated. It contains 71 individual titles, each of which is broken down into several chapters, which are further broken down into sections.

That’s a lot of laws to learn!

I can’t expect every Tennessee law enforcement officer to be aware of all state laws. However, they should be well aware of all those that protect themselves from things like not knowing where apprehendees’ used syringes are, should they be in possession of them.

One such example is with T.C.A. § 40-7-124 — Tennessee Code Annotated Title 40, Chapter 7, Section 124 — which protects people in the possession of syringes used as drug paraphernalia from getting charged with being in possession of drug paraphernalia.

Here’s how it works: after getting pulled over or otherwise approached by law enforcement and before being searched, as long as you inform the officer(s) that you’re in possession of syringes and point them toward the general location of said syringes, you cannot get charged or prosecuted with violation of drug paraphernalia statutes for those syringes.

Unfortunately, many law enforcement officers in NWTN — also, presumably, elsewhere around the state of Tennessee — aren’t aware of laws that help or protect drug users such as T.C.A. § 40-7-124.

There Aren’t Many Programs That Help Drug Users Here

Of course, there are some programs that help drug users in rural West Tennessee, but there aren’t many.

Just like everywhere else, we have rehabs, which are designed to help drug users get over their struggles with substance use disorder. We also have our lovely Regional Overdose Prevention Specialist, Melesa Lassiter, who distributes naloxone to community members and trains them in using naloxone.

Outside of this, there aren’t really any programs designed to help drug users here in Northwest Tennessee.

In Conclusion

Obviously, I didn’t include any solutions to the issues identified in this post. The purpose of this document is simply to explain to outsiders some of the issues that plague drug users in NWTN.

Please reach out to me with any questions or concerns. I don’t know too many people who are down with the cause in Northwest Tennessee, so, if you are — or even if you don’t live in NWTN — please reach out.